citation situation difficile
In a recent study of more than 80 patients, the most abundant bacterial family was Enterobacteriaceae (>30%) and the five most abundant families (Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, and Ruminococcaceae) represented less than 50% of the bacterial diversity (Staley et al., 2018). Its rules and guidelines can be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Methods. Microbiol. Peptostreptococcaceae family was 1.56% overall and within the family the only identified member was the genus Clostridioides, positively correlated with the presence of Akkermansia that may be predictive of the presence of a CDI. A positive correlation was observed between the Akkermansia and Clostridioides genera (C. difficile). J. Stat. 1 The organism is acquired from an exogenous source and given certain conditions can induce disease. Clostridium difficile infection appears particularly after antibiotic chemotherapy or prolonged periods of hospitalization, which causes disruption and dysbiosis of the endogenous intestinal microbiota and facilitates the proliferation of toxigenic C. difficile in the gut. 30, 772–780. Not surprisingly, restoring Lachnospiraceae in infected patients has been shown to help cure C. difficile infections (Song et al., 2013) and it is a bacterial family used in fecal material transplants (Staley et al., 2018). Anonymous works--Unknown authorship. Patients in cluster A were either immunosuppressed (transplant patients) or immunocompromised (cancer patients) and treated with severe antibiotic regimes, including broad spectrum antibiotics. However, the main alpha diversity indices, such as the Chao richness estimator, and the Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were 134.32 ± 80.6, 4.01 ± 1.25, and 0.86 ± 0.12, respectively, indicating that the observed reduced alpha diversity was true, and not a sequencing artifact. Evol. Prevotellaceae is a family that can enzymatically disrupt mucosal barrier function and tends to be more abundant in intestinal biopsy samples isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Nagao-Kitamoto et al., 2016). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Libraries were sequenced on a MiSeq platform at the University of Burgos, leading to 300-bp, paired-end reads. Considering the increasing popularity of reptiles as pets and their possible role as reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms, the aim of this study was to isolateEscherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, andC. All patients were reported to be CDI positive as they were positive for GDH antigen and the gene encoding toxin B (tcdB), but negative for the C. difficile ribotype 027 test. 34, 1515–1525. (2013). ESPD stands for Enfants En Situation Particulièrement Difficile (French). When data are not available that will withstand object â¦ Diversity of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in Europe: results from the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), 2012 and 2013. Lopetuso, L. R., Petito, V., Graziani, C., Schiavoni, E., Paroni Sterbini, F., Poscia, A., et al. Il est visible dans la décision de commettre un crime ou son absence en réponse à une situation spécifique. Microbial diversity was studied by sequencing the amplified V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using previously reported primers and PCR conditions (Klindworth et al., 2013). A reduced abundance of Bacteroides was associated with a poor CDI prognosis, with severe diarrhea and a high incidence of recurrence. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70991-0, Di Bella, S., Ascenzi, P., Siarakas, S., Petrosillo, N., and di Masi, A. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2017.119, Callahan, B. J., McMurdie, P. J., Rosen, M. J., Han, A. W., Johnson, A. J. Human gut microbiota: repertoire and variations. Antimicrobial Resistance: New Zealandâs current situation and identified areas for action. doi: 10.1159/000477205, McDonald, D., Price, M. N., Goodrich, J., Nawrocki, E. P., DeSantis, T. Z., Probst, A., et al. Infect. Eur. ABECEDAIRE CITATIONS PAR AUTEURS A comme … AMAR, M. « Le sport apporte aux jeunes de saines occupations. Yutin, N., and Galperin, M. Y. Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de S�vign�, R�f�rences de Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de S�vign�, Biographie de Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de S�vign�, Citation de Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de S�vign� (n� 115801), Livres de Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de S�vign�, citation de Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de S�vign�, Toutes les citations sur situation difficile, Les proverbes, leurs origines et explications, D�finitions de l'adage, l'aphorisme, la citation, le dicton, la maxime, le proverbe et la sentence. Misdemeanor traffic … Figure 2. J. Med. Dis. Diversity and evolution in the genome of Clostridium difficile. Bacterial and fungal microbiota changes distinguish C. difficile infection from other forms of diarrhea: results of a prospective inpatient study. The Lachnospiraceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Ruminococcaceae families were dominant in both cohorts, but CDI patients showed a predominance of the Peptostreptococcaceae family, with a relative reduction in the abundance of the Bacteroidales and Clostridiales groups, whereas there was a higher abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and some species of Enterobacteriaceae. The previous history of antibiotherapy is also highly relevant; the trigger may be dysbiosis caused by prior antibiotic treatment, even in cases in which the gastrointestinal process is caused by C. difficile and there is robust evidence for CDI. The clinical symptoms within this group included severe diarrhea and an uncertain prognosis, which in many cases was fatal, and the percentage of recurrences higher. C. difficile infection (CDI) is thus a toxin-mediated disease of the colon, with clinical symptoms that range from mild or self-limiting diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and life-threatening fulminant colitis (Leffler and Lamont, 2015; Smits et al., 2016). Articles, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (DSMZ), Germany, Ramón y Cajal Institute for Health Research, Spain. Thus, the involvement of the pathobiont Rikenellaceae as a triggering factor for the diarrhea cannot be ruled out, as the percentage of C. difficile was lower after 2 months. Nat. (2018). Microbiol. Samples were rarefied to 17,520 reads per sample for beta-diversity analysis to reduce the bias due to different sequencing depths (only sample MS1498 was excluded from beta-diversity analysis). In addition, the incidence of CDI is increasing and may be highly underestimated (Alcalá et al., 2015), 23% of cases may be undiagnosed, equivalent to approximately 40,000 missed CDI diagnoses per year in 482 participating hospitals in 20 European countries (Davies et al., 2014). This citation style was created by the American Psychological Association. Front. J. Clin. In some cases or jurisdictions, you may instead be issued a citation, but with the condition that if you remedy the problem and return to a police station within a certain period, say 48 hours, the citation will be thrown out, and will never appear on your record. Exact sequence variants should replace operational taxonomic units in marker-gene data analysis. We analyzed beta-diversity between samples by calculating weighted UniFrac distance matrices and representing them as principal coordinates (Figure 2). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. (2012). An outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at Höglandet Hospital Eksjö in southern Sweden in 2011 was mainly due to a multidrugâresistant PCR ribotype 046 (30% of all samples). Microbiome data distinguish patients with Clostridium difficile infection and non-C. difficile-associated diarrhea from healthy controls. In addition, some C. difficile strains may also produce a binary toxin, called C. difficile transferase (CDT), with a potential role in the pathogenesis of the bacterium (Di Bella et al., 2016). Best. Environ. The Citation Latitude aircraft flight deck, centered around Garmin G5000 avionics, is designed to provide pilots with the comfort and information they need for a reliable and efficient flight. (2014). Citefast is a FREE APA, MLA and Chicago citation generator. N. Engl. Softw. In addition, an elevated abundance of Akkermansia may be a predictive marker for the presence of a CDI. However, our findings showed Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Enterobacteriaceae to be the most abundant families, along with a higher abundance of Enterococcaceae. This is the first time that QIIME2 has been used to analyze the gut microbiota associated with CDI, and, different from previous studies, sequences are not clustered together into “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs) using a certain dissimilarity threshold (generally 97 or 99% similarity). 56, 1108–1116. McFarland, L. V., Mulligan, M. E., Kwok, R. Y., and Stamm, W. E. (1989). doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12173, Keywords: CDI, Clostridioides difficile, diarrhea, microbiota, bacterial, 16S rRNA, Citation: Hernández M, de Frutos M, Rodríguez-Lázaro D, López-Urrutia L, Quijada NM and Eiros JM (2019) Fecal Microbiota of Toxigenic Clostridioides difficile-Associated Diarrhea. The relative abundance of the 15 most abundant families in the fecal samples is shown in Figure 3, in which samples are segregated into clusters A and B from the PCoA. This work received financial support of the Gerencia Regional de Salud of Junta de Castilla y León (Spanish Regional Government) (Grant Number GRS 1780/A/18). Clostridium difficile infection is currently one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in developed countries and the main cause in healthcare settings (Lagier, 2016). Schubert et al. In these cases, co-infection cannot be ruled out, and the differences in the bacterial community profile should be considered with caution. J. Clin. DR-L contributed to the discussion of the results and to the writing of the manuscript. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1803103, Katoh, K., and Standley, D. M. (2013). Differences in the relative abundance of these bacterial families in clusters A and B are shown in Figure 3. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks808, Knight, D. R., Elliott, B., Chang, B. J., Perkins, T. T., and Riley, T. V. (2015). However, co-infection with other pathogenic agents often plays an important role in the development of diarrhea, and must be considered when prescribing antibiotic treatment. Infect. 2, 10–14. 29K likes. Acquisition of C. difficile appears to be from the environment rather than maternal sources. An improved greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea. CDI is defined by the presence of symptoms (usually diarrhea) and either a stool test positive for C. difficile toxins or detection of toxigenic C. difficile, or colonoscopic or histopathologic findings revealing pseudomembranous colitis. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00127-14, Lagier, J.-C. (2016). Sources that have no known author or editor should be cited by title. We analyzed the redox potential in fecal content and differs among the samples (minimum +29.03 mV, maximum +187,67 mV, mean ± standard deviation, 90.7 mV ± SD35.1). The characterization was based on phylogenetic typing ofE. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2011.139. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections . Cell. In addition to the different profiles of the bacterial communities, the previous medical interventions, prognoses, and recurrences were different between the two groups. Wickham, H. (2016). Four other bacterial families had an overall relative abundance of over 5%: Enterobacteriaceae 9.82%, Lachnospiraceae 9.33%, Tannerellaceae 6.16%, and Ruminococcaceae 5.64%. Is Clostridium difficile-associated infection a potentially zoonotic and foodborne disease? The burden of CDI has increased mainly in the United States and Europe. Figure 5. All-cause and disease-specific mortality in hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection: a multicenter cohort study. In â¦ Dis. Toxins 8:E134. Chasing the rate: An interrupted time series analysis of interventions targeting reported hospital onset Clostridioides difficile, 2013â2018 - Michelle E. Doll, Jinlei Zhao, Le Kang, Barry Rittmann, Michael Alvarez, Michele Fleming, Kaila Cooper, Michael P. Stevens, Gonzalo Bearman However, fecal microbiota transplantation appears to be a promising treatment for recurrent CDI (Shankar et al., 2014; Juul et al., 2018). MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2016.01.33. The number of previous hospital admissions was higher for patients receiving healthcare in hospital than those receiving community care (Figure 1B). Infect. In the last decade, the frequency and severity of C. difficile infection has been increasing worldwide to become one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. ISME. ESPD is defined as Enfants En Situation Particulièrement Difficile (French) rarely. A genomic update on clostridial phylogeny: Gram-negative spore formers and other misplaced clostridia. Although less discriminatory than PCR ribotyping, the method is extremely fast and simple, and supports for cost-effective screening of â¦ In-Text Citations: When an author or author(s) published multiple sources in the same year, include a lowercase letter immediately following the … The most abundant diarrhea-related bacteria for two patients (MS0141 and MS0227) were Staphylococcus and Klebsiella. 36, 56–65. How is Enfants en Situation Difficile (French: Children in Difficult Circumstances) abbreviated? For more information on the law and photo citations, see California Vehicle Code section 21455.5. Wellington: Ministry of Health and Ministry for Primary Industries. La plupart des femmes ont toujours assez d'esprit pour se tirer d'une situation difficile. Biosthmors ( talk ) pls notify me (i.e. Nature 473, 174–180. Although one of the main alpha diversity indices, the Shannon index, was significantly higher in our study than that reported in other studies (Staley et al., 2018), the findings of our study are in accordance on that decreased diversity, as we observed reduced bacterial diversity; 3,477 different ASVs were identified with high variability between samples and 29 harbored less than 100 different ASVs. doi: 10.3390/toxins8050134, Hensgens, M. P. M., Goorhuis, A., Dekkers, O. M., van Benthem, B. H. B., and Kuijper, E. J. 15, 2631–2641. However, given that C. difficile could be ruled out as the primary etiological agent for four patients, the percentage dropped to 20.75%. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection â¢ CID 2018:XX (XX XXXX) â¢ 3 cases per 1000 patient admissions for CO-HCFA) in pedi-atric patients as for adults (good practice recommendation). The immune system protects the host from pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites). Copyright © 2019 Hernández, de Frutos, Rodríguez-Lázaro, López-Urrutia, Quijada and Eiros. NMQ received a Ph.D. fellowship from the Spanish National Institute for Agriculture and Food Research and Technology (INIA, Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad; fellowship FPI2014-020). Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is currently one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in developed countries and the main cause in healthcare settings. Sangster et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown promising results of treating recurrent CDI, where treatment with antibiotics fails repeatedly. The role of Clostridium difficile in the paediatric and neonatal gut — a narrative review. We observed a reduction in the abundance of Bacteroides not only in C. difficile associated diarrhea, but also when other pathogenic agents were more abundant. (2018). 2:136. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00136, Lees, E. A., Miyajima, F., Pirmohamed, M., and Carrol, E. D. (2016). Clostridium difficile toxins A and B: insights into pathogenic properties and extraintestinal effects. It is evident that modification of the gut microbiota can play a relevant role in the development of CDI. 28, 721–741. 38, 779–786. Nosocomial acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. C. difficile was identified in almost all samples and was detected in all but five diarrheic samples included in Cluster B (11.90% of the samples in cluster B), in which other components of the family Peptostreptococcaceae were found (not in sample MS0223). 2.Conduct surveillance for HO-CDI for inpatient pediatric Pour tous ceux et celles qui aiment les citations. Similarly, the trigger may be also the status of the immune system. This reduction was associated with a weakened host immune system and previous aggressive antibiotherapy. A., and Holmes, S. P. (2016). Microbiol. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009490. This reduction may be associated with a weakened host immune system and history of aggressive antibiotherapy. Citations situation difficile Sélection de 3 citations et proverbes sur le thème situation difficile Découvrez un dicton, une parole, un bon mot, un proverbe, une citation ou phrase situation difficile issus de livres, discours ou entretiens. Fecal microbiota transplantation for primary Clostridium difficile infection. MF, MH, and JE designed the study. The GeneXpert C. difficile PCR assay (Cepheid) was used for the detection of the toxin B gene (tcdB), binary toxin, and tcdC deletion that identifies ribotype 027. Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacillus, was first described in 1935, 1 but it was not associated with antibiotic-related diarrhea until the late 1970s. doi: 10.1007/s10096-016-2639-3. A total of 7,474,887 reads survived the quality filtering process (108,239 ± 53,034 reads/sample). Intest. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Two clusters A (full black) and B (dot lane) were observed. Rev. However, Firmicutes was more prevalent in 13 samples and Proteobacteria in three. The recent publication of clinical practice guidelines for C difficile infection in adults did not address issues that are specific to children. Species and genus level resolution analysis of gut microbiota in Clostridium difficile patients following fecal microbiota transplantation. In our study, we were able to segregate the samples into clusters in which these two aspects were highly relevant. (2006). Indeed, there was a significant difference in the distribution of Bacteroidaceae between cluster A and cluster B; the relative abundance of Bacteroidaceae was very low and even absent in many samples (5.57% overall, Figure 3A) in cluster A, whereas it was dominant in cluster B, with a relative abundance of 36.91% (Figure 3B). doi: 10.1038/nature09944, Bokulich, N. A., Kaehler, B. D., Rideout, J. R., Dillon, M., Bolyen, E., Knight, R., et al. The multidrug-resistant human pathogen Clostridium difficile has a highly mobile, mosaic genome. Fecal-oral transmission from other patients or animals, which represent potential reservoirs of C. difficile, also plays an important role in CDI epidemiology (Rupnik, 2007). However, co-infection with other pathogenic agents often plays an important role in the development of diarrhea and must be considered when prescribing antibiotic treatment. The DNA concentration was determined using a Qubit®fluorimeter (Invitrogen). 35, 7188–7196. infections . 372, 1539–1548. (A) Distribution of the patients according to age (y, years and , average age), sex (female and male), and community-, healthcare in a nursing home-, and nosocomial-acquired diarrhea. 9:3331. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03331. C. difficile. Patients with an abnormally low abundance of Bacteroides (<10%) did not recover as well as those with higher percentages. For each stool sample, 220 mg of feces was homogenized and total DNA extracted using the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), according to manufacturer’s instructions. (2016). Infect. Remarkably, patients who tested positive for the binary toxin gene did not show severe diarrhea. That was true in our study for at least four patients who were infected by Klebsiella, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, or Escherichia. The 16S rRNA profiling data sequenced in this study were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive of the National Center for Biotechnology Information database under the following study accession number: PRJNA493204. There were two clusters (A and B) that described 38.9% of the variability in the x-axis. Genet. Background . This study was conducted at the Hospital Universitario “Rio Hortega” (Valladolid, Castilla y León, Spain) in accordance with the recommendations of the Ethical Clinical Research Committee (CEIC) of the western health area of Valladolid. Hum. Clostridium difficile strains were typed by a newly developed MALDI-TOF method, high molecular weight typing, and compared to PCR ribotyping. For example, the microbiota of sample MS0227, that came from a patient who had bloody diarrhea, fever, and was vomiting, was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae (49.57 and 9.52% relative abundance, respectively) and had a low abundance of Bacteroidaceae (11.11%). (2016). However, Lachnospiraceae was the third most abundant family overall (9.33%) and the second most abundant family in cluster B, in which its relative abundance was even higher (10.64%). We performed an ecological analysis by high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA amplicons and evaluated the association of the various ecological profiles with CDI risk factors. At least 14,000 people die each year in the United States from . Underdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile across Europe: the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhea (EUCLID). MH and NQ performed the bioinformatics analysis and designed the figures. PLoS One 8:e81330. Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) were obtained instead and represent much higher taxonomic resolution than OTUs, as single-nucleotide differences over the sequenced gene region are taken into account (Callahan et al., 2017). *Correspondence: Jose María Eiros, email@example.com, Front. Meaning of difficult. Leffler, D. A., and Lamont, J. T. (2015). difficile, serotyping ofSalmonella spp., ribotyping and MLST ofC. However, the percentage of Bacteroides was lower among the most affected patients and in those with the worst evolution; a reduction in the abundance of this family to below 50% could be considered to be a marker for worsening of the clinical prognosis. ESD is defined as Enfants en Situation Difficile (French: Children in Difficult Circumstances) somewhat frequently. Nat. Only patient MS1496 was finally successfully treated with fidaxomicin, because of multiple recurrences. Mieux vaudrait qu'elles aient eu celui de l'éviter. The individuals in this study clearly belonged to enterotype 1, with a high abundance of Bacteroides (31.01% overall). Metadata of the 57 patients studied. However, certain C. difficile strains have pathogenic potential mediated by two exotoxins: toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), encoded by the tcdA and tcdB genes within the pathogenicity loci (PaLoc). Dis. Wilson, K. H., and Perini, F. (1988). Here are specific examples of how it works in the three major citation styles: APA Style. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081330, Staley, C., Kaiser, T., Vaughn, B. P., Graiziger, C. T., Hamilton, M. J., Rehman, T. U., et al. Impact of clinical awareness and diagnostic tests on the underdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection. Front. Many studies of the human intestinal tract have reported few phyla to be present in the gut; Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes generally dominate, whereas Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia, are generally minor constituents. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates in the United States have tripled from 2000 to 2005, and disease morbidity and mortality have increased, particularly among elderly persons. Les plus belles citations. Among 500 isolates representing 59 PCR ribotypes a total of 35 high molecular weight types could be resolved. This is a complete guide to APA (American Psychological Association) in-text and reference list citations. Microbiome J. Stool samples were stored at −80°C until use. |, www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/p0225-clostridium-difficile.html, https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/healthcare-associated-infections-antimicrobial-use-PPS.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Nagao-Kitamoto, H., Kitamoto, S., Kuffa, P., and Kamada, N. (2016). doi: 10.1038/nmeth.3869. Microbiol. (2006). Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), especially hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI), continues to be a public health problem and has aroused great concern worldwide for years. Caporaso, J. G., Kuczynski, J., Stombaugh, J., Bittinger, K., Bushman, F. D., Costello, E. K., et al. J. Med. Eur. Plotting was carried out in the R environment4, using ggplot2 (Wickham, 2016) and reshape2 (Wickham, 2007) packages. A phylogenetic tree was built using alignment (Katoh and Standley, 2013) and phylogeny (Price et al., 2010) plugins. Dis. 2017. Many studies have characterized the baseline gut microbiota in healthy adults, in which 90% is composed of anaerobes. Patients who lacked Bacteroidaceae (mainly in Cluster A) had severe disease and were previously treated for diarrhea with an aggressive or prolonged antimicrobial treatment.
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